The Welsh outfit followed up wins over Wigan and title-chasing Manchester City with another deserved three points in west London. Gylfi Sigurdsson goals either side of half-time set the Swans on course to victory, which was confirmed when Joe Allen struck late on.
Swansea now sit eighth in the Barclays Premier League and Rodgers said: "It was a phenomenal performance. I felt this was our biggest game of the season and I said that to the players beforehand."
He added: "After the high of last week in terms of the result and the performance against Manchester City, I didn't want us to just be a team that raises their performance for the big games. We've consistently done very well and got good results against the big teams.
"Our improvement has been continual as the season has gone on and I knew Fulham's record at home has been incredible really. But I thought we put on a real clinic today of what we are about. It was a joy as a manager to see that relationship of training going into the game.
"Our possession game was fantastic and our ability to control possession was at a real high level. Also the part of our game that isn't noticed so much was great - the intensity of our pressure.
"All round, to come here and score three goals - and we maybe could have had one or two more - and control the game as we did, was obviously very pleasing."
While the visitors' return to Wales buoyed by three points, counterpart Martin Jol was less than impressed by his side's performance. Fulham came into the match unbeaten in six home games in all competitions, but they looked second best throughout at Craven Cottage.
"I thought in the main you could say, especially at home, we have had a lot of players that put in good performances," he said. "But today we didn't play like a team and all the players that would normally make a difference were not there.
"I feel Swansea will always have a lot of possession, even when they play Manchester United or Chelsea. There is two ways to respond to that, which is either to press them or drop off, let them play and try to break them."